Table 1.

Characteristics of Included Studiesa

  • a mRNA=messenger ribonucleic acid, PCR=polymerase chain reaction, NAD+=oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH=reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

  • b Interventions for active and comparison groups were identical after 8 weeks. The results presented are from the 8-week time point. All results at the 20-week time point were not significant.