Table 2.
Table 2.

Group Comparisons of Outcome Measures at Each Assessmenta

  • a T0=6 weeks before the start of the therapist-designed adaptive riding (TDAR) intervention; T1=start of the TDAR intervention; T2=end of the TDAR intervention; MCID=minimal clinically important difference of a large effect size for Gross Motor Function Classification System level III18; ICF-CY=International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version; GMFM-88=88-item Gross Motor Function Measure; A=activity; NA=not available; PEDI=Dutch version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; A/P=activities and participation; P=participation; QoL=quality of life; Self-Esteem=Behavioral Rating Scale of Presented Self-Esteem; Pe=personal factors; DISABKIDS=cerebral palsy module of disease-specific DISABKIDS (higher scores denote a poorer outcome); KIDSCREEN-52=generic KIDSCREEN-52; BS/F=body structure and function.

  • b Values are reported as median (range) (minimum–maximum) for the 6 participants unless otherwise indicated.

  • c Bold values exceeded the MCIDs.

  • d The goal areas of the GMFM-88 were dimension D (standing) and dimension E (walking, running, and jumping).

  • e In the modified Tardieu Scale, a 5-point rating scale (grades) was used to describe the quality of the muscle reaction. A grade of 0 indicated no resistance throughout the course of the passive movement; a grade of 1 indicated slight resistance throughout the course of the passive movement (no clear “catch” at a precise angle); a grade of 2 indicated a clear catch at a precise angle, interrupting the passive movement, followed by release; a grade of 3 indicated fatigable clonus (<10 seconds when maintaining the pressure and appearing at a precise angle); and a grade of 4 indicated infatigable clonus (>10 seconds when maintaining the pressure at a precise angle). Spasticity grades were obtained for 6 participants unless otherwise indicated. In addition, 2 angles (R1 and R2) were determined: R1 was the angle of catch after a high-velocity stretch, and R2 was the passive range of motion after a low-velocity stretch. The difference between the 2 angles (R2−R1) represented the level of dynamic contracture in the joint. Negative values indicated plantar flexion at the ankle joint.